Methods of External Technology Transfer-2

The most frequently stated objective of co-operative and collaborative alliances is to develop or transfer new technologies. A worldwide trend is the use of partnership, strategic alliances, and other collaborative mechanisms to alleviate difficulties in all aspects of technological development. These partnerships provide faster and less costly methods to develop new technology products processes and services, e.g., SEMATECH, a collaboration of members of the United States Semiconductor industry. Co-operative R&D allow partners to reach critical structures more rapidly for large complex technology projects, e.g., the European Airbus Project.

Partnerships and strategic alliances allow merging of technological knowledge and skills from multiple enterprises, improving innovation in the chosen technology. Bidault and Cumings found that cross-industry alliances proved more innovative than alliances with competitors. These cross-industry alliances occur more frequently than in the past. However, these alliances have a high risk of failure and produce more incremental than radical innovations. 

Many characteristics of alliance are often in conflict with objectives of the technology development originally envisioned.

Technology driven cooperative and collaborative alliances can be managed through various enterprise structures. The strategic alliance all involves obtaining synergism through leveraging mutual resources. This also achieves diversification risk and mutual learning or technology transfer. Strategic alliances for technology transfer can be: 

·         Technical exchanges

·         Cross-licensing

·         Co-Production

·         Marketing agreements

·         Joint product developments programs

·         Joint ventures with equity ownership

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