Methods of External Technology Transfer-1

An enterprise can acquire or transfer technology through a number of formal mechanisms, which include: 

·         Co-operative and collaborative ventures

·         Licensing

·         Contracting

·         Enterprise acquisition 

Co-operative and Collaborative Ventures 

Co-operative and collaborative ventures are structures between two or more enterprises. These ventures can take various organizational forms. One form of venture is through equity in a jointly owned new enterprise. A general partnership is another form of venture where the partners can be competitors suppliers, or customers. The partners do not need to be limited to those within a single nation. Consortia consist of one or more enterprises including universities, industry and federal laboratories. Strategic alliances are an organizational format where two or more entities enter in to a formal agreement to jointly pursue certain technological objectives. The term of the enterprise of partnership can be limited or unlimited in duration. The degree of sharing resources can vary from little to total, or be limited to specific aspects of the shared objectives. Collaboration, according to Tucci among participants can take the form of research, exchanging proven technologies across single product line, joint development of one of more products, and collaboration across marketing and research. 

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