Methods of Technology Transfer-2

In our previous post we have talked about Informal Processes and today still we continue our talk on Informal Processes and also we will talk on Formal Processes. In some instances the knowledge of genetic code had been placed on-line in electronic media such as the Internet only to be patented by others. The process of training scientists in academic research institutions is another informal method of technology transfer. Acquisition of critical technical personnel is another informal method of technology transfer. While intellectual property can be protected, it is very difficult to protect knowledge and skills which key technical personnel have encoded within them. While employee agreements can preclude direct competition, in practice it is very difficult to enforce, especially if the personnel move to another country, taking the knowledge with them. 

Formal Processes 

The formal processes of technology transfer are generally process-embodied or person-embodied transfer within an overarching organizational framework. These processes include outright procurement of a technology though its sale, licensing or acquisition of the enterprise tin which the technology is embedded. Another formal process of technology transfer is through formal agreements between governments, enterprises, individuals, research entities such as laboratories, and academic institutions. In this instance, formal legal arrangements are made, such as joint ventures, R & D consortia, co-operative agreements and other legal instrumentality.

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