Types of Technology Transfer

Scientific Knowledge Transfer 

Scientific knowledge transfer is traditionally associated with research and development activities, and involves the transmission of knowledge gained through research. This type of transfer is most prevalent in the area of basic research and development. Knowledge transfer is accomplished primarily through information exchange and presentations of technical papers at scientific meeting and symposia. 

Direct Technology Transfer

Direct technology transfer occurs between:

·         Enterprise elements, i.e., internal integration

·         Enterprise to enterprise

·         Government to enterprise

·         Government to government

Direct technology transfer usually occurs through formal


Spin-off Technology Transfer

Spin-off transfer occurs when technology developed by one enterprise, in one technical area, and usually for one purpose, is applied and used for a different purpose in a different technical area of market application than those foreseen at the time of the research and development was originated. The United States government has introduced numerous programs and expended considerable resources to commercialize various technologies originally developed for specific governmental and military purposes. Each type of technology transfer has a number of factors, which must be considered. The advantages achieved through technology transfer also have associated risks and disadvantages. The transfer of technology can occur in any of the various stages of technological development and utilization shows the stages of the technology transfer process.


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