Definitions and Classifications -1

In the absence of such capacity to choose, transfer of inadequate, unsustainable, unsafe, or “bad”, but perhaps cheaper technology and equipment can take place.  The transfer of technology during the 1980s for the productions of inefficient refrigerators and the international trade of used cars are – cases in point. The understanding of technology transfer is not helped by the tendency of public discourse to lump “science” together with “technology”. Each may benefit from the other, but do not necessarily follow one from the other.  

Some countries have good scientific traditions, but are relatively weak in developing new technologies. Other countries may be world leaders in technology without having many winners of Noble Prizes. Often, technology development leads to scientific advance, which in turn may lead to new technology. Modern technology is very often “Private (or proprietary) knowledge”. Whereas scientific knowledge is available freely to all that are scientifically literate, proprietary knowledge is not. As a form of knowledge, technology moves from one organization to another in a variety of ways. “The complex ways in which knowledge moves from individual to individual and organization to organization raises the first problem in effective technology transfer”. It may be worth repeating that technology is not simply a patent or a piece of equipment, but knowledge, processes and practices.


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