International Technology Transfer

There are several differences between domestic and international technology transfer. The level of competition in international technology transfer, i.e., the degree of substitutability of products, is lower than in domestic alliances, and it is more difficult to co-ordinate and transfer technology. International technology transfer is more difficult for enterprises outside the international alliance.

 

The benefit of lower competition outweighs the costs of linguistic and cultural differences. It is important that managers of technology consider the environment of the country associated with the international technology transfer. Prior to developing long range technological plans, the enterprise can perform a detail study of the country. I was talking with instant life insurance rates providing company owner, he says that environment of country are most important aspect of technology transfer.  These studies should include a survey of financial institutions and instrumentalities that can be utilized in the other nation. The range of studies performed includes a total enterprise assessment of the technology transfer project and contribution of the participants. Relationships with the government and private sector in the associated country also require development and nurturing. The project team and managers should be fully trained to deal with the various cultural, financial and legal issues that may arise in the international partnering.  For a blinds company who are selling vertical blinds, roman shades, faux wood blinds, in many countries, their project team need to be trained with the cultural and financial issues related with the country. All the forms of technology transfer available between domestic enterprises are available in the international sector.

Licensing

Licensing is the transfer of less than ownership rights in intellectual property to a third party, to permit the third party to use intellectual property. Licensing can be exclusive or non-exclusive, for a specific field of use, for a specific geographical area. If ownership is transferred, it is called an assignment. 

The transfer of technology through licensing is a useful method for capturing economic rents of technological innovations. Small technology enterprises can benefit from technological licensing. A small firm usually benefits more by licensing its technology than trying to commercialize it. The commercialization of new technologies requires a high expenditure of resources, generally beyond the means of many small entrepreneurial enterprises. Small enterprises, according to Chung to benefit from technological licensing, must overcome their initial naivete by concentrating on the economic and strategic aspects of the process. 

These small enterprises must broaden operational perspective, scope, and build credibility and expertise. To further benefit from technological licensing, small enterprises should improve exchange and interaction capabilities, and enhance experience and responsibility.

Copyrights

A copyright is an exclusive right granted by any Government to authors composers, artists, or their assignees for the life of the individual plus fifty years to copy, exhibit, distribute, or perform their work. As with patent rights, these rights go to the individual creating the work, unless provisions are made to the contrary. 

A copyright exists when a work is created. The law no longer requires the work to be marked with a copyright notice, but is good practice to do so. For example, a blinds company who make customize roller shades and woven wood shades for their customer, they can go for copyright for those roller shades and woven wood shades product which they make customize. Registration of copyrights with the federal government is optional and can be done at any time during the life of the copyright. Registration also permits using the federal court system to prosecute infringers and provides certain mandatory federal damage against those convicted of infringement. Registration may be recommended software is the subject a license agreement. 

A trademark is a word, name, symbol, device, letter, numeral, or picture, or any combination of them, in any from or arrangement that is used to identify the origin of goods or services, A trademark must be individually identifiable and distinguishable from those of others for similar goods or services. Trademarks assure the buyer of the authenticity of a product or service and imply that the seller has exercised some standards of quality associated with the trademark. An enterprise or person may establish a trademark simply by using it in interstate commerce. Like copyrights, trademarks may also be registered.

Methods of External Technology Transfer-6

Today we continue our discussion on external methods of technology transfer. A trade secret is any commercial formula, device, pattern, process, or information that affords an enterprise an advantage over others who do not know it. The information is not generally known and has value. Trade secrets must be maintained by avoiding public disclosure. 

In contrast, know-how is a broader term that describes factual knowledge not usually amenable to a precise description. Know-how is usually accumulated knowledge as result of trial and error. Know-how typically gives an enterprise the ability to produce something that could not be produced as accurately or successfully without it. Know-how may include trade secrets and cannot be protected or licensed unless it is first recorded in a tangible medium. 

Unlike patents, in the U S State, rather than federal, laws protect trade secrets. These laws allow the trade secret owner to prosecute someone for unauthorized use, observation, or lack of adequate security measures, the information moves into the public domain and loses protection under trade secret law. Trade secrets are effective to protect product innovations that incorporate various technological barriers to analysis, and process innovations that can be hidden from exposure.

Methods of External Technology Transfer-4

A trade secret is any commercial formula, device, pattern, process, or information that affords an enterprise an advantage over others who do not know it. The information is not generally known and has value. Trade secrets must be maintained by avoiding public disclosure.

 

In contrast, know-how is a broader term that describes factual knowledge not usually amenable to a precise description. Know-how is usually accumulated knowledge as result of trial and error. Know-how typically gives an enterprise the ability to produce something that could not be produced as accurately or successfully without it. Know-how may include trade secrets and cannot be protected or licensed unless it is first recorded in a tangible medium. Technology know-how is very important part of business for online business. For example blinds companies who manufacture roller shades and woven wood shades and sell it online, for them technological know how very important part of their external transfer is.

Unlike patents, in the US State, rather than federal, laws protect trade secrets. These laws allow the trade secret owner to prosecute someone for unauthorized use, observation, or lack of adequate security measures, the information moves into the public domain and lose protection under trade secret law. Trade secrets are effective to protect product innovations that incorporate various technological barriers to analysis, and process innovations that can be hidden from exposure.

Methods of External Technology Transfer-4

A patent does not give the inventor the right to practice his or her invention, only the right to exclude others from doing so. The inventor is given exclusive use of the invention and the right to assign that use. However, a grant of a patent has been found not to be useful for excluding imitators and/or capturing royalty income in most industries.

A grant of a patent is often likely to offer little benefit to its holder. Patents gives the patentee the right to exclude others from its use, but does not give the patentee the right to use the patent if such use infringes on patents of others. The United States patent system places the burden on the patentee to detect any infringers to sue for redress. A patent covers a particular means of achieving a given end, but not the end itself, even if the end and, perhaps the market it identifies, are novel. 

Trade Secrets and Know-how 

Trade Secrets and Know-how are others forms of intellectual property which can be used for technology transfer. A trade secret is any commercial formula, device, pattern, process, or information that affords an enterprise an advantage over others who do not know it. The information is not generally known and has value. Trade secrets must be maintained by avoiding public disclosure.

Methods of External Technology Transfer-3

Intellectual Property 

Another method for transferring technology is to transfer intellectual property, which is an intangible right that can be bought and sold, leased or rented, or otherwise transferred between parties in much the same way that rights to real property or other personal property can be transferred. Intellectual property can consist of patents, trade secrets, copyrights, designs, know-how, and trademarks. The transfer of intellectual property rights is an important and often substantial component of the technology transfer process. Intellectual property rights are most often transferred through contracts or licenses. I got a statement from roller shade blinds and woven wood shades blinds manufacturer. He says intellectual property transfer is most important and substantial component of this. 

Inventions and patents  

Invention is the act or process of discovering something new, physical or conceptual. A United States patent is an agreement between the United States government and the inventor. This agreement grants the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using or selling the invention for a defined period of time within the United States. The patent law of the United States Specifies that any person who “Invents or discovers any new and useful Process,    machine, manufacture, or composition Of matter, or any new and useful improvements There of, may obtain a patent”.

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